Loren on the Art of MATLAB

Turn ideas into MATLAB

Creating Sparse Finite-Element Matrices in MATLAB 49

Posted by Loren Shure,

I'm pleased to introduce Tim Davis as this week's guest blogger. Tim is a professor at the University of Florida, and is the
author or co-author of many of our sparse matrix functions (lu, chol, much of sparse backslash, ordering methods such as amd
and colamd, and other functions such as etree and symbfact). He is also the author of a recent book, Direct Methods for Sparse Linear Systems, published by SIAM, where more details of MATLAB sparse matrices are discussed ( http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~davis ).

 

Contents

MATLAB is Slow? Only If You Use It Incorrectly

From time to time, I hear comments such as "MATLAB is slow for large finite-element problems." When I look at the details,
the problem is typically due to an overuse of A(i,j)= ... when creating the sparse matrix (assembling the finite elements). This can be seen in typical user's code, MATLAB code in
books on the topic, and even in MATLAB itself. The problem is widespread. MATLAB can be very fast for finite-element problems,
but not if it's used incorrectly.

How Not to Create a Finite-Element Matrix

A good example of what not to do can be found in the wathen.m function, in MATLAB. A=gallery('wathen',200,200) takes a huge amount of time; a very minor modification cuts the run time drastically. I'm not intending to single out this
one function for critique; this is a very common issue that I see over and over again. This function is built into MATLAB,
which makes it an accessible example. It was first written when MATLAB did not support sparse matrices, and was modified
only slightly to exploit sparsity. It was never meant for generating large sparse finite-element matrices. You can see the
entire function with the command:

  type private/wathen.m

Below is an excerpt of the relevant parts of wathen.m. The function wathen1.m creates a finite-element matrix of an nx-by-ny mesh. Each i loop creates a single 8-by-8 finite-element matrix, and adds it into A.

type wathen1
tic
A = wathen1 (200,200) ;
toc
function A = wathen1 (nx,ny)
rand('state',0)
e1 = [6 -6 2 -8;-6 32 -6 20;2 -6 6 -6;-8 20 -6 32];
e2 = [3 -8 2 -6;-8 16 -8 20;2 -8 3 -8;-6 20 -8 16];
e = [e1 e2; e2' e1]/45;
n = 3*nx*ny+2*nx+2*ny+1;
A = sparse(n,n);
RHO = 100*rand(nx,ny);
nn = zeros(8,1);
for j=1:ny
    for i=1:nx
        nn(1) = 3*j*nx+2*i+2*j+1;
        nn(2) = nn(1)-1;
        nn(3) = nn(2)-1;
        nn(4) = (3*j-1)*nx+2*j+i-1;
        nn(5) = 3*(j-1)*nx+2*i+2*j-3;
        nn(6) = nn(5)+1;
        nn(7) = nn(6)+1;
        nn(8) = nn(4)+1;
        em = e*RHO(i,j);
        for krow=1:8
            for kcol=1:8
                A(nn(krow),nn(kcol)) = A(nn(krow),nn(kcol))+em(krow,kcol);
            end
        end
    end
end

Elapsed time is 305.832709 seconds.

What's Wrong with It?

The above code is fine for generating a modest sized matrix, but the A(i,j) = ... statement is quite slow when A is large and sparse, particularly when i and j are also scalars. The inner two for-loops can be vectorized so that i and j are vectors of length 8. Each A(i,j) = ... statement is assembling an entire finite-element matrix into A. However, this leads to very minimal improvement in run time.

type wathen1b
tic
A1b = wathen1b (200,200) ;
toc
function A = wathen1b (nx,ny)
rand('state',0)
e1 = [6 -6 2 -8;-6 32 -6 20;2 -6 6 -6;-8 20 -6 32];
e2 = [3 -8 2 -6;-8 16 -8 20;2 -8 3 -8;-6 20 -8 16];
e = [e1 e2; e2' e1]/45;
n = 3*nx*ny+2*nx+2*ny+1;
A = sparse(n,n);
RHO = 100*rand(nx,ny);
nn = zeros(8,1);
for j=1:ny
    for i=1:nx
        nn(1) = 3*j*nx+2*i+2*j+1;
        nn(2) = nn(1)-1;
        nn(3) = nn(2)-1;
        nn(4) = (3*j-1)*nx+2*j+i-1;
        nn(5) = 3*(j-1)*nx+2*i+2*j-3;
        nn(6) = nn(5)+1;
        nn(7) = nn(6)+1;
        nn(8) = nn(4)+1;
        em = e*RHO(i,j);
        A (nn,nn) = A (nn,nn) + em ;
    end
end

Elapsed time is 282.945593 seconds.
disp (norm (A-A1b,1))
     0

How MATLAB Stores Sparse Matrices

To understand why the above examples are so slow, you need to understand how MATLAB stores its sparse matrices. An n-by-n
MATLAB sparse matrix is stored as three arrays; I'll call them p, i, and x. These three arrays are not directly accessible from M, but they can be accessed by a mexFunction. The nonzero entries in
column j are stored in i(p(j):p(j+1)-1) and x(p(j):p(j+1)-1), where x holds the numerical values and i holds the corresponding row indices. Below is a very small example. First, I create a full matrix and convert it into a sparse one. This is only so that you can easily see the matrix C and how it's stored in sparse form. You should never create a sparse matrix this way, except for tiny examples.

C = [
4.5 0.0 3.2 0.0
3.1 2.9 0.0 0.9
0.0 1.7 3.0 0.0
3.5 0.4 0.0 1.0 ] ;
C = sparse (C)
C =
   (1,1)       4.5000
   (2,1)       3.1000
   (4,1)       3.5000
   (2,2)       2.9000
   (3,2)       1.7000
   (4,2)       0.4000
   (1,3)       3.2000
   (3,3)       3.0000
   (2,4)       0.9000
   (4,4)       1.0000

Notice that the nonzero entries in C are stored in column order, with sorted row indices. The internal p, i, and x arrays can be reconstructed as follows. The find(C) statement returns a list of "triplets," where the kth triplet is i(k), j(k), and x(k). This specifies that C(i(k),j(k)) is equal to x(k). Next, find(diff(...)) constructs the column pointer array p (this only works if there are no all-zero columns in the matrix).

[i j x] = find (C) ;
n = size(C,2) ;
p = find (diff ([0 ; j ; n+1])) ;
for col = 1:n
    fprintf ('column %d:\n    k      row index     value\n', col) ;
    disp ([(p(col):p(col+1)-1)' i(p(col):p(col+1)-1) x(p(col):p(col+1)-1)])
end
column 1:
    k      row index     value
    1.0000    1.0000    4.5000
    2.0000    2.0000    3.1000
    3.0000    4.0000    3.5000
column 2:
    k      row index     value
    4.0000    2.0000    2.9000
    5.0000    3.0000    1.7000
    6.0000    4.0000    0.4000
column 3:
    k      row index     value
    7.0000    1.0000    3.2000
    8.0000    3.0000    3.0000
column 4:
    k      row index     value
    9.0000    2.0000    0.9000
   10.0000    4.0000    1.0000

Now consider what happens when one entry is added to C:

C(3,1) = 42 ;

[i j x] = find (C) ;
n = size(C,2) ;
p = find (diff ([0 ; j ; n+1])) ;
for col = 1:n
    fprintf ('column %d:\n    k      row index     value\n', col) ;
    disp ([(p(col):p(col+1)-1)' i(p(col):p(col+1)-1) x(p(col):p(col+1)-1)])
end
column 1:
    k      row index     value
    1.0000    1.0000    4.5000
    2.0000    2.0000    3.1000
    3.0000    3.0000   42.0000
    4.0000    4.0000    3.5000
column 2:
    k      row index     value
    5.0000    2.0000    2.9000
    6.0000    3.0000    1.7000
    7.0000    4.0000    0.4000
column 3:
    k      row index     value
    8.0000    1.0000    3.2000
    9.0000    3.0000    3.0000
column 4:
    k      row index     value
   10.0000    2.0000    0.9000
   11.0000    4.0000    1.0000

and you can see that nearly every entry in C has been moved down by one in the i and x arrays. In general, the single statement C(3,1)=42 takes time proportional to the number of entries in matrix. Thus, looping nnz(A) times over the statement A(i,j)=A(i,j)+... takes time proportional to nnz(A)^2.

A Better Way to Create a Finite-Element Matrix

The version below is only slightly different. It could be improved, but I left it nearly the same to illustrate how simple
it is to write fast MATLAB code to solve this problem, via a minor tweak. The idea is to create a list of triplets, and let
MATLAB convert them into a sparse matrix all at once. If there are duplicates (which a finite-element matrix always has)
the duplicates are summed, which is exactly what you want when assembling a finite-element matrix. In MATLAB 7.3 (R2006b),
sparse uses quicksort, which takes nnz(A)*log(nnz(A)) time. This is slower than it could be (a linear-time bucket sort can be used, taking essentially nnz(A) time). However, it's still much faster than nnz(A)^2. For this matrix, nnz(A) is about 1.9 million.

type wathen2.m
tic
A2 = wathen2 (200,200) ;
toc
function A = wathen2 (nx,ny)
rand('state',0)
e1 = [6 -6 2 -8;-6 32 -6 20;2 -6 6 -6;-8 20 -6 32];
e2 = [3 -8 2 -6;-8 16 -8 20;2 -8 3 -8;-6 20 -8 16];
e = [e1 e2; e2' e1]/45;
n = 3*nx*ny+2*nx+2*ny+1;
ntriplets = nx*ny*64 ;
I = zeros (ntriplets, 1) ;
J = zeros (ntriplets, 1) ;
X = zeros (ntriplets, 1) ;
ntriplets = 0 ;
RHO = 100*rand(nx,ny);
nn = zeros(8,1);
for j=1:ny
    for i=1:nx
        nn(1) = 3*j*nx+2*i+2*j+1;
        nn(2) = nn(1)-1;
        nn(3) = nn(2)-1;
        nn(4) = (3*j-1)*nx+2*j+i-1;
        nn(5) = 3*(j-1)*nx+2*i+2*j-3;
        nn(6) = nn(5)+1;
        nn(7) = nn(6)+1;
        nn(8) = nn(4)+1;
        em = e*RHO(i,j);
        for krow=1:8
            for kcol=1:8
                ntriplets = ntriplets + 1 ;
                I (ntriplets) = nn (krow) ;
                J (ntriplets) = nn (kcol) ;
                X (ntriplets) = em (krow,kcol) ;
            end
        end
    end
end
A = sparse (I,J,X,n,n) ;

Elapsed time is 1.594073 seconds.
disp (norm (A-A2,1))
  1.4211e-014

If you do not know how many entries your matrix will have, you may not be able to preallocate the I, J, and X arrays, as done in wathen2.m. In that case, start them at a reasonable size (anything larger than zero will do) and add this code to the innermost loop,
just after ntriplets is incremented:

    len = length (X) ;
    if (ntriplets > len)
       I (2*len) = 0 ;
       J (2*len) = 0 ;
       X (2*len) = 0 ;
    end

and when done, use sparse(I(1:ntriplets),J(1:ntriplets),X(1:ntriplets),n,n).

Moral: Do Not Abuse A(i,j)=... for Sparse A; Use sparse Instead

Avoid statements such as

C(4,2) = C(4,2) + 42 ;

in a loop. Create a list of triplets (i,j,x) and use sparse instead. This advice holds for any sparse matrix, not just finite-element ones.

Try a Faster Sparse Function

CHOLMOD includes a sparse2 mexFunction which is a replacement for sparse. It uses a linear-time bucket sort. The MATLAB 7.3 (R2006b) sparse accounts for about 3/4ths the total run time of wathen2.m. For this matrix sparse2 in CHOLMOD is about 10 times faster than the MATLAB sparse. CHOLMOD can be found in the SuiteSparse package, in MATLAB Central.

If you would like to see a short and concise C mexFunction implementation of the method used by sparse2, take a look at CSparse, which was written for a concise textbook-style presentation. The cs_sparse mexFunction uses cs_compress.c, to convert the triplets to a compressed column form of A', cs_dupl.c to sum up duplicate entries, and then cs_transpose.c to transpose the result (which also sorts the columns).

When Fast is Not Fast Enough...

Even with this dramatic improvement in constructing the matrix A, MATLAB could still use additional features for faster construction of sparse finite-element matrices. Constructing the
matrix should be much faster than x=A\b, since chol is doing about 700 times more work as sparse for this matrix (1.3 billion flops, vs 1.9 million nonzeros in A). The run times are not that different, however:

tic
A = wathen2 (200,200) ;
toc
b = rand (size(A,1),1) ;
tic
x=A\b ;
toc
Elapsed time is 1.720397 seconds.
Elapsed time is 3.125791 seconds.

Get the MATLAB code

Published with MATLAB® 7.4

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